safflower

Safflower (safflower)

GrainProTrade – Safflower (safflower) wholesale at producer prices

Thistle is known for its cultivation in China and Japan. It came to Central Europe with the Romans, where it has been actively used for a variety of purposes since at least the 13th century: flowers - for coloring food and fabrics, fruits - for medicinal purposes and for the production of fatty oil.

At the moment it is used as an oil crop in India, Mexico, the USA, Argentina, Australia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine, and the underlying crops totaled 21 million hectares at the beginning of the 0,91st century.

Our company GrainProTrade supplies safflower (safflower) directly from farmers in Kazakhstan and Ukraine on favorable terms. Our safflower seeds with an oil content of more than 30%, a purity of 99% and a moisture content of no more than 13% are excellent for the production of high-quality safflower oil.

You can safely buy safflower (safflower) from us without worrying about the quality, as all of our products are consciously selected by our QM staff in Kazakhstan and Ukraine, thereby meeting the highest standards, which is a quality to be expected of the goods guaranteed. Besides the high standard, the products are sold at an affordable wholesale price. The conditions for the sale of safflower (safflower) can be specified at any time in writing or by telephone with the manager. Our team provides our customers with the in Big Bag Safflower ordered packed by truck within 5 working days.

The main advantages of the ZusaWorking with our company:

  • the high level of professionalism of our entire team, which ensures problem-free delivery of high-quality safflower in the shortest possible time;
  • an appropriate price level, since we work directly with thistle producers in Kazakhstan and Ukraine, e.gusamen work;
  • convenient delivery straight to you.

Contact our managers on the website or by phone. We offer high quality safflower at an optimal price!

All about thistle

Properties of thistle

In safflower seeds, the fatty oil content reaches 40% and is characterized by a very high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (about 75%) and a high content of vitamin E. The remaining meal is high in protein and can be good feed for animals. Cartamine is the most important color pigment in the flowers, it also contains the flavonoids isocaramidine, cartamidine and luteolin. In addition, essential oils were found in the "petals" whose main components (apart from caryophyllene) are rather specific substances: p-allyltoluene and 1-acetoxytetralin.

Two water-soluble dyes are obtained from the “petals”: ​​kartamine – red and kartamidin – yellow. Dyes are extracted from the petals with water, and silk, wool, and cotton are dyed red, pink, or yellow in an alkaline environment. Unfortunately, these dyes are characterized by low light resistance and quickly burn out in the sun, but they are absolutely harmless and can be used to color food, such as drinks or fruit jelly, as well as cosmetics.

Due to the high price of saffron, petals are used as a cheap substitute and by unscrupulous manufacturers as a substitute for this spice. So be careful when you buy saffron. Its raw material is pestles, which can be distinguished in two-lobed form with the naked eye.

Benefits and harms of thistle

Safflower is a promising plant for drug development and the labs of many pharmaceutical companies are working with it.

Various parts of the plant have long been used in traditional medicine as a laxative, analgesic, antipyretic, and antidote to poisoning. In Chinese medicine, thistle solved painful menstrual problems, was used to stop postpartum bleeding and prevent osteoporosis, especially during menopause. Thistle causes smooth muscle contraction, including the uterus and intestines, and this is due to its hemostatic effect in the first case and laxative in the second. And because of this property, it is contraindicated in pregnancy. In addition, tea made from flower petals has been used in cardiovascular diseases in old age.

Currently, thistle have been found to have antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic properties. Its effectiveness in uterine bleeding and ability to reduce pressure has been confirmed in all kinds of laboratory animals - from mice to pigs.

The ability of drugs to reduce platelet aggregation has been confirmed in vitro and in vivo, the ability to reduce total cholesterol background and increase the proportion of high-density lipoproteins, that is, good cholesterol, has also been established. For example, in 83% of patients with atherosclerosis, blood cholesterol levels decreased after 6 weeks of taking thistle.

But safflower has one unpleasant property - it is poorly combined with many drugs, and therefore, if the patient is forced to constantly take various pharmaceuticals, one needs to be very careful with safflower. In particular, it should not be combined with taking anticoagulants and is contraindicated in people prone to bleeding.

It is likely that thistle has a specific hormonal effect. Studies have been conducted in China on the treatment of men suffering from infertility. But the greatest effect was found in women suffering from infertility. After treatment with thistle, 56 pairs of 77 produced offspring.

A good effect has been obtained both from the decoction of the flowers and from the use of this decoction externally in rheumatic diseases, while they are different in origin - both metabolic and rheumatoid arthritis.

Unfortunately, most of these studies are conducted in labs of different companies that are not keen on sharing application methods and recipes. Therefore, perhaps the only quantitative recommendation on the European Internet was that usually 3-9 g of petals are brewed in 500 ml of water and this is the daily dose, drunk in 3 doses.

Due to the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, safflower oil has the property of reducing the level of harmful cholesterol and is a means of preventing atherosclerosis and high blood pressure, and consequently strokes and heart attacks.

Externally poultices and ointments from flowers are used in the treatment of burns, boils, poorly healing wounds. The oil is a good cosmetic for problematic skin and a base for hair care products, especially weak, brittle and dry. In creams, the oil is used to care for dry and aging skin. And of course, similar to milk thistle oil, it is useful as a salad oil in dietary nutrition.

plantsbiologic

Thistle has a stable, well-branched root system that penetrates up to 2 meters deep. The rapid growth of the root during the germination phase and the slow growth of the leaf mass ensure its survival in arid climates. At the beginning of growth, the plant slowly forms 10-12 true leaves, after which the rapid formation and lengthening of the stalk begins, branching of the plant. Due to the side shoots (from 3 to 15), the plants form a bush with a diameter of up to 20-45 centimeters. The side shoots continue to branch, baskets are formed, thereby self-regulating the density of the plants. The stalk of the thistle is erect, bare, 85-95 centimeters high, although, as our observations show, under favorable conditions the plant height can reach 1,2-1,3 meters.

In the leaves of the plant dimorphism is clearly visible. The lower leaves are larger in size than a leaf plate, and the appearance of spines on them occurs only in really prickly varieties. Breeders have also created non-polučie forms of plants, but the development of spines on the leaves and leaves of the wrapper is a form of this plant's adaptation to particularly dry weather conditions. At the same time, the new, non-Polish varieties Zhivchik and Lagidny will never become as prickly as prickly varieties. The leaf plates become stiff after the completion of the juvenile period and become coated with a waxy protective layer that offers a low water consumption coefficient of 125-200 m3/quintal.

The average number of baskets per plant ranges from 10 to 25 pieces. However, in favorable growing conditions on rugged plants, their number can reach 80 pieces. 20 to 50 or more seeds can form in the basket. Even after full maturity, the seeds do not crumble, and the baskets do not fall off.

Although for thistle due to partial self-pollination, the absence of bees pollinators (in the case of isolation of plots) leads to a decrease in productivity by 10 to 25% of the possible.

The fruit is an oblong, almost white seed with fuzzy ribs, reminiscent of a sunflower seed. The seeds have a coarse shell, the shell is 58-68%, the modern varieties have 40-50%. The mass of 1000 seeds can be from 35 to 50 grams.

From germination to the formation of 8-10 leaves for plants, the bottom arrangement of leaves (rosette) and the period of slow growth of the land part are characteristic, which causes sensitivity to clogging. In the future, rapid elongation of the internodes (the stalk phase) begins, and the average daily linear increase exceeds 3 centimeters.

Thistle is well adapted to the dry continental climate, so in the steppe zone the yield of seeds, especially in dry years, significantly exceeds all spring cabbage crops and oilseeds.

Distel is characterized by early spring development. Its seeds begin to germinate at a soil temperature of + 2-3 °C, and the optimum temperature is +6-8 °C. Thistle shoots withstand short frosts down to -4-6 °C. The best thing for the production of shoots is a gradual increase in temperatures in the presence of moisture. The resistance of the plant to temperature drops after the formation of a rosette of leaves decreases sharply, and later the plant needs heat.

Technology for growing thistle

The best progenitors for thistle are winter and spring crops placed after the best progenitors, as well as hoe crops. Under these conditions, deep moisture reserves and a favorable phytosanitary background are formed. It is permissible to place thistle after corn, rape and flax, but it is inadmissible after sunflower, sugar and fodder beets, sorghum, which greatly dry out the soil. The deadline for returning the culture to the previous place is 4-5 years. Thistle is a good precursor for spring crops, and under favorable autumn conditions it is an acceptable precursor for winter barley and even winter wheat.

Preparation of the ground

Given the biological features of the spread of the root system and the conditions for the accumulation of moisture, the advantage has a deep loosening of the soil. Attention should be paid to the minimal resource-saving system of soil preparation using highly productive combination, cheesel and disc tools. The improved finch better suits culture requirements and zone conditions.

When placing thistle after grain, it is necessary to immediately peel the stubble. In severe blockages are repeated after 2-3 weeks after weed regrowth to a depth of 10-12 cm. For perennial weeds, it is advisable to use herbicides in accordance with the recommended technology for their application.

If the predecessor is corn or another late crop, the field is discarded with a heavy harrow to 10-12 cm, then keep loosening to a depth of 24-30 cm. In the presence of weeds, plowing to a depth of 25-27 centimeters.

Thistle plants consume 75% of soil moisture from a metre-long soil layer and 25% from deeper horizons. To optimize the water regime and prevent deflation under thistle, it is advisable to loosen the soil undisturbed. According to the results of the research, the highest harvest of thistles was obtained at 25-27 cm - 16,5 cwts/hectare, after sowing at a similar depth - 13,0 cwts/hectare, while against the background of shallow and shallow cultivation 11,4 and 9,8 centners/hectare were achieved.

Given the early sowing times of the culture, after autumn plowing, it is advisable to develop ridges, furrows and carry out cultivation to a depth of 8-10 cm to level the surface.

In spring, when the soil is mature, perform an early shake to close in moisture and level the finches. The benefit should be given to broadband aggregates. Before sowing loosen perform dampened cultivators sowing depth 4-6 cm across sowing. With a favorable soil structure and a level field surface, pre-sowing treatment can include harrowing with paw diggers. Immediately after sowing, to improve contact of seeds with the soil and accelerate germination, be sure to spend and rolling.

food

Thistle is inconspicuous for soil fertility and, with low norms of fertilizers, produces sufficiently high yields on nutrient-poor soils. On the southern we recommend black soil, under plowing fertilizer in a dose of N30-45Р40-60К15-45, on dark-chestnut – N45-60Р30-45. It is advisable to set the amount of fertilizer using the calculated method, taking into account the level of nutrients in the soil. Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are better to use in case of cultivation according to the inevitable technology before disking. Small norm (20-30 kg/hectare of the active substance), as well as nitrogen fertilizers are better before, during sowing cultivation, and smaller ones (up to 20 kg/hectare) – locally at sowing.

sowing

In the south, favorable conditions for the formation of a thistle crop are formed only at the early sowing time, when physical maturity of the soil occurs. The delay in sowing by 10 and 20 days reduces the crop yield from 14,2 hundredweight/hectare to 12,7 hundredweight/hectare and 11,2 hundredweight/hectare, respectively. This reduces field germination (and an increase in seeding rate does not compensate for the decrease in yields), the height of plants, the number of baskets per plant and the number of seeds in them.

According to the recommendations of the Institute of Oil Plants, sowing of thistle should be carried out when the soil temperature at the sowing depth reaches + 3-4 ° C. Compared to sowing at a soil temperature of + 8-10 ° C, the yield was on average 14,2% higher.

Thistle can be sown both in the usual ordinary way and with a row spacing of 45 to 70 centimeters.
The benefit of the wider sowing method is the ability to apply cross-row treatments when soil herbicides are not used. Given the low planting rate of 10-15 kg/hectare, aggregates with high spreading capacity should have the advantage. The best results in terms of uniformity of seed placement in the soil are given by seed drills with disc coulters.

On dark brown, slightly saline, heavily loamy soils, the advantage of sowing with a row spacing of 12,5 centimeters and a sowing rate of 210-240 thousand plants per hectare was demonstrated. With this sowing method, the yield of thistle was 16,0 quintals/hectare compared to 13,5 quintals/hectare with 45 cm sowing and 12,3 quintals/hectare with 70 cm sowing. Reducing the norm affected crop size more adversely than thickening. The sealing of the seeds should be 4-6 centimeters, but if the top layer of soil is dried, it will increase to 6-8 centimeters.

maintenance work

The care of thistle plants consists in rolling after sowing, shaking the shoots in phase 4-6 of these leaves over the rows, on broad-filamentous plants until the branching phase make 1-2 interrow cultures. The first cultivation is carried out in the phase 4-6 of the true leaves to a depth of 6-8 centimeters, and the second is carried out at 12-15 centimeters in 8-10 days. Cross-harrow and cross-row cultivation is not required when applying soil herbicides.

The herbocritical period of thistle is 25-30 days from the germination stage to the stem. In the future, plants successfully control phytocenosis themselves.

In the fight against perennial weeds vegetation high is the effectiveness of soil herbicides, which under sowing cultivation. The highest yield of 14,8 to 15,2 hundredweight/hectare was noted on average in three years when introducing the herbicides Gesagard 500 (3 liters/hectare), Stompa (4 liters/hectare). With Goal 2E (1 litre/hectare), Double Gold 960 EG (1,5 litres/hectare) and a tank mix of Gesagard and Harnes (1,5 + 1 litres/hectare) the yield of Distel was 13,8-14,4, XNUMX hundredweight/hectare.

When large debris sows annual cereal weeds it is advisable to use graminicide such as Fusiland Super 125 EU (1,5 liters/hectare), Select 120 (0,6 liters/hectare), Panther (1,1 liters/hectare) and others.

harvest

Thistle is harvested directly by harvesting at a seed moisture content of 10-12%. For threshing they begin when all the plants and baskets turn yellow and the seeds are solidified. If the plants are left standing for a long time, the seeds may fall off when the cutting blades hit the stem of the plant. To prevent the logs from winding on the threshing drum, raise the cutting height, but no higher than 10 centimeters from the branching point of the lower productive shoot. It is recommended to rotate the drum at 800-1100 rpm, with the upper grille openings set at 7-8 millimeters and the lower one at 5-7 millimeters.

The collected seeds should be subjected to primary cleaning and, if necessary, dried to a moisture level of no more than 13%. The basic norms according to which the calculation is made for thistle seeds prepared for industrial processing are considered 13% humidity, 2% weed content, 4% oil content, pest infestation of grain stocks is not allowed.

Due to the high cost of oilseeds, simple technology and relatively low cost of production, growing thistle provides high profit and profitability. The main economic results are influenced by the yield and the level of cultivation technology. Depending on the agricultural technology, the total costs can be between 80 and 125 €/hectare. Fertilizers and pesticides, fuels and lubricants, and land leases account for most of the funding in technology.

With a yield of 9 to 15 centners/hectare, the profitability of production is 60 to 82%. Thistle ripens early, which allows you to realize the products if necessary before harvesting the sunflowers.

thistle products

Thistle is widely used in many industries, different countries have their own traditions and culture of their use - dyeing, food, medicine, cosmetics, animal feed. However, it is mainly known as an oil crop, since its seeds contain between 32-39% of semi-drying oil (in the core 50-56%). In the fatty acid zusacomposition thistle resembles a sunflower. The ZusaComposition of the oil includes such fatty acids: linoleic acid - 88,3%, oleic acid - 7,6%, palmitic acid - 5,5%, stearic - 0,65%, linolenic acid - 0,2%. The oil is used for food and technical purposes to produce margarine, Olify, high-quality white enamel that does not turn yellow over time, soap, linoleum, etc. Safflower seeds are bitter, which is due to the presence of bitter substances in the shell is, therefore, for the production of edible oil, seed breaking is carried out.

Distel contains in its ZusaComposition also inulin, which contributes to the normalization of blood sugar levels, exhibits an antisclerotic, choleretic, diuretic effect, regulates the function of the thyroid gland.

As a fodder plant, it is used in its pure form and in mixtures. Animals eat the green mass of thistle without thorns well. Unroasted thistle seeds contain 6-7% oil, 24-25% starch and 19% Protein, 100 kg contains 50 feed units and 13,3 kg digestible protein. Although the cake is bitter and bitter, the animals quickly get used to it and eat it well. Thistle farms are useful food for birds.

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